IMPROVED MENTAL VIGOR
Recent studies1 on athletes supports the role of caffeine having an ergogenic effect on psychological mood dimensions – notably vigor and assertiveness to embrace and rise to an exertional challenge. Furthermore, these studies also highlighted that caffeine had a lowering effect on the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at both a muscular and general level.
In a recent Meta-analysis, highlight that supplementation with ALCAR improved depressive symptoms, and thought to be associated with improved transport of fatty-acids across mitochondria membranes.
MAXIMAL FAT OXIDATION
Consistent meta-analysis1,2 of studies on caffeine conducted over the past 40 years, has shown that taken correctly, caffeine can support a statistically significant effect on raising fat-oxidation levels, and improved ketogenesis. Athletes can support improved fat-oxidation3 through caffeine and support fatty-acid transport into the mitochondria via ALCAR.
In another meta-analysis, Taurine was shown to improve time-to-exhaustion in athletes, while further research highlighted a synergistic effect (lactate lowering) of taurine used with caffeine.
TRUSTED DOSAGE FOR KNOWN OUTCOMES
With wide and unpredictable variations1 in caffeine levels in natural and processed caffeinated drinks, and foods – athletes results are put at risk, by either to little, or too much caffeine. Extracting caffeine from green tea, and using a consistent measured dose per serve, Athletes can test various dosage levels during training, in understanding their personal responses and improvement.
Athletes can trust their own proven consumption-testing in training to simulate planned nutrition-caffeine use on race and competition days.
The coupling of caffeine to high-sugar gels, chews, is counter to the desired benefits of improved fat oxidation efficiency. Sugar-carbohydrate consumption taken prior to exercise, will naturally raise insulin levels thereby blunting maximal fat-oxidation1 rates.
By decoupling sugar from caffeine supplementation, and consuming caffeine in conjunction with low-carb, higher-fat based fueling, the metabolism can best be supported for maximal fat oxidation and ketogenesis.
Caffeine supports improved oxidation of fatty-acids, for energy – inside the mitochondria. Caffeine also can improves-upgrades, the rate of ketogenesis, particularly on medium-chain triglycerides.
Caffeine is thought to primarily effect two main adenosine receptors, in upregulating cognitive functions, including mood, vigor, assertiveness, vigilance (improved performance of lengthy tedious tasks), executive-functions, while reducing both reaction times (i.e. faster responses) and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) during exercise.
Acetyl-L-Carnitine is naturally produced by, and used in the body. The body can convert Acetyl-L-Carnitine to carnitine, which plays a critical role in the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria for oxidation, and energy production. Conversely, it plays a critical role in transporting the metabolites (waste) of fatty-acid oxidation out of the mitochondria.
Acetyl-L-Carnitine crosses the blood brain barrier to support both neuro-modulatory effects (through the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA) and neuro-protective effects of oxidative stress.
Taurine is an amino acid that can be produced in the body, has broad physiological actions, and notably crosses the blood brain barrier. It is found high in brain, heart, muscle and eye tissues.
Taurine supports neuromodulation of neurotransmitters in the brain, and supports both enzymes and transporters for energy metabolism within the mitochondria (energy powerhouse of the cell).
The B-Vitamins are water-soluble and cannot be stored in the body. While having a broad range of functions in the body, Vitamin B3 serves a critical function in synthesis of enzymes (NAD/NADP), to extract energy from food.
Vitamin B6 cannot be produced in the body, and plays a fundamental role in the synthesis of neuro-transmitters – several of which are related to mood. Vitamin B6 is also involved in the synthesis of red blood cells.
Similarly, Vitamin B12 serves as a key nutrient for red blood cell production. In addition to B12 not being able to be stored in the body, the effectiveness of it’s absorption reduces with age.
" Off-road racing requires an intense focus. Having PRIMED in my bottles helps me stay in total control when I need it most "
Lewis Ryan, Xterra World Tour Taiwan Champion
"I drink PRIMED for those morning workouts, and harder sessions to focus and get in the zone. It's also a great alternative when you need an extra boost during those activity crammed days!"
Dr. Dan Plews, PhD Exercise Physiology
EXPAND FOR FURTHER GUIDANCE
In optimizing the effect of SFuels PRIMED, it is recommended to consume the 1 serving/sachet 60mins PRIOR to starting your workout, race or competition. Based on the above chart, if you are guided to consider consuming further servings/sachets during the workout, race-competition – SFuels recommends that these be consumed, starting 30-60mins AFTER the workout, race-competition commences, and equally spaced apart over the duration of the workout, race-competition.
Like all equipment, nutrition every athlete responds uniquely to new approaches. SFuels highly recommends testing SFuels PRIMED dosages for optimal usage, in training workouts. In optimizing the impact of caffeine supplementation for supporting upgraded fat oxidation and mental focus, SFuels recommends testing measured dose(s) of caffeine (80mg/serve) like SFuels PRIMED, in simulated racing conditions (intensity, duration, weather, fueling, hydration etc.) during training. Various authorities' reference 400mg caffeine/day, as a safe dosage ceiling for most adults.
INDUSTRY RESEARCH REFERENCES
Effect of Acute Caffeine Intake on the Fat Oxidation Rate during Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Caffeinated Drinks and Physical Performance in Sport: A Systematic Review
Nutritional Supplements to Stimulate Lipolysis: A Review In Relation to Endurance Exercise Capacity
Caffeine and taurine enhance endurance performance
Acute Effects of Caffeine Intake on Psychological Responses and High-Intensity Exercise Performance
Effects of caffeine supplementation on physical performance and mood dimensions in elite and trained-recreational athletes
Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplementation and the Treatment of Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
GO PRIME YOUR MOJO.
The information documented within this guide, and on SFuelsgolonger.com is not provided, nor intended, to cure, treat or diagnose any disease. The provision of this information and products from SFuels should not be substituted for consultation (face to face) or medical advice, from your preferred health care professional and/or general physician. The information provided in this guide, and on SFuelsgolongercom are based on the opinions of SFuels, unless otherwise referenced and/or linked. This guide is provided as a means to share the experience and knowledge of SFuels with the interested endurance community.